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1,2,3-TCP Remediation

1,2,3-Trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) Removal and Treatment

​​What is 1,2,3-TCP?
1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) is a manmade chemical that is not naturally occurring in the environment. It is a colorless- to straw-colored non-aqueous liquid that has been used as an industrial solvent and cleaning/degreasing agent. It was an impurity in a soil fumigant used on some crops and is currently utilized in the manufacture of various organic chemicals. Because it is denser than water, it can be difficult to remove from groundwater wells.

Where is TCP found?
The most likely exposure to trichloropropane is near industrial settings or hazardous waste sites where TCP was improperly stored or disposed, or near sites where TCP is manufactured or used. Because it was an impurity in a soil fumigant used to control nematodes in the Great Central Valley of California, trichloropropane has been found to contaminate groundwater, including drinking water, mainly in California’s counties of Merced, Kern, and Fresno, where use in an agricultural setting was prominent. It is not likely to be found in soil as it passes through the soil to the groundwater. Exposures to humans can occur through inhalation and through drinking water.


Health Effects of TCP
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the State of California have all classified trichloropropane as a likely carcinogen to humans at a chronic oral reference dose of 4x10^3 milligrams per kilogram per day. Short-term exposure has been found to cause eye and throat irritation; over longer exposure, TCP can cause liver and kidney damage in animal studies and may affect concentration, memory issues, and muscle coordination in humans. Read more about the EPA’s findings about TCP.

There is no Federal Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TCP. The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) established a notification level of 0.005 μg/L in1999. In order to accomplish this detection level, The CDPH developed a modified version of US EPA 524. The EPA method resulted in a detection level of 0.5 μg/L in 2002. The preliminary staff recommendation by the Division of
Drinking Water (DDW) is an MCL of 0.005 μg/L (5 ppt). Following the Public comment period and Departmental and Peer review, adoption of the MCL is expected to be Spring 2017 with implementation Summer 2017.

 Contact Us

Contact Evoqua for help with TCP remediation:

John Lombardo
+1 (781) 506-9624
Send an email

TCP Water Sampling 

 Evoqua’s Solution to The TCP Challenge

​Meeting the aforementioned levels of trichloropropane in drinking water is an expensive challenge to most water utilities. While some studies have attempted to demonstrate in situ treatment, the most reliable and prevalent means of removing TCP is pump and treat through Granular Activated Carbon (GAC).

Evoqua Water Technologies is unique in that we offer a comprehensive range of activated carbon, equipment, and services, which can be utilized to meet water utilities needs for compliance. With regard to GAC products, Evoqua offers the most comprehensive menu the market has to offer.

Our approach starts by evaluating the most effective base material for each application to ensure maximum efficiency. AquaCarb® CX enhanced coconut shell GAC combines the benefits of an activated carbon with a high micropore structure of coconut shell GAC and faster kinetics of a bituminous coal. The result is an excellent capacity for difficult-to-adsorb organics as well as adsorptive performance for other background organics. The result is longer bed life and lower life cycle costs.

The AquaCarb family of carbons are ANSI/NSF 61 classified for use in potable applications. They fully conform to the physical, performance and leachability requirements established by ANSI/AWWA B604, including Food Chemical Codex.

For more than 40 years, Evoqua Water Technologies has been active in treating groundwater for the removal of organic and inorganic impurities. We were one of the first companies to provide remediation of impacted waters with the development of our activated carbon treatment packages for the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE). Since then we have worked with water districts, impact communities, and industry in the removal of both organic compounds, including TCE, TCP, H2S, and inorganic contaminants including, arsenic, chrome, lead, perchlorate, and nitrate. Whether you are treating groundwater water to meet discharge standards or drinking water standards, Evoqua has a solution.

What sets Evoqua apart is the broad range of technologies we offer as well as the services we provide. With each technical solution, Evoqua Field Engineers are available to help set up, start up, or even operate the equipment. Since we are able to draw from a spectrum of solutions, we can identify the answer that will provide you the best overall value.

In addition to media and services, Evoqua provides treatment equipment. Treatment vessels specifically designed for these types of applications are available for either purchase or rent. The vessels can operate over a wide range of pressures with capacities from 5 to 2,000 GPM. Standard features include:

  • An optimized underdrain system for lower pressure drops. 
  • Durable, quality construction with 100% internally/externally welded seams.
  • Abrasion and corrosion resistant internal epoxy coatings. 
  • Top and side manways that permit easy access and inspection of the underdrain system.

Read the trichloropropane application brief.